Wednesday, October 20, 2021

Endocrine System & Thyroid

Thyroid and endocrine system

General Information:

The Endocrine system is a very complicated system which refers to glands that make and secrete special molecules (hormones) into the blood in order to regulate the metabolic function of other organs.

The Endocrine system consists of various types of glands located in different parts of the body, including:

  • Hypothalamus – secretes many releasing hormones (regulates pituitary)
  • Pituitary – secretes many tropic and stimulating hormones (under the regulation of hypothalamus)
  • Pineal – secretes melatonin
  • Thyroid – secretes T4 and small amounts of T3 (see below) as well as calcitonin
  • Parathyroid – secretes PTH to control calcium metabolism.
  • Heart – secretes for regulation of sodium
  • Stomach – secretes gastrin to stimulate acid secretion
  • Intestines – secrete special hormone (secretin, and VIP-a special Hormone) to control the digestive system.
  • Pancreas – secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate the blood sugar
  • Kidney – secretes special hormones to control blood pressure and calcium
  • Fat cells – secrete leptin to control the appetite
  • Adrenals – secrete important hormones to regulate blood sugar and minerals as well as help the body to deal with many types of stress.


The thyroid gland, located just below the Adam’s apple, is an important part of this system. The thyroid secretes its hormones in two forms: Thyroxin (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). T4 contains 4 iodine atoms in its structure while T3 has 3 of these ions. T4, the primary circulatory thyroid hormone, is a biologically inactive hormone, which means it does not affect the metabolism of body cells directly. While circulating, T4 enters the target cells in the body tissues, where it is converted into the active form or T3. The thyroid gland is strictly regulated by higher centers located in the brain, including the hypothalamus and pituitary glands.

Healthy function of the thyroid gland is an important factor for many other organs and systems in the body, and its imbalance may affect the proper function of these organs. Read more about thyroid

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